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Как работает полиграф и почему его не признает большинство судов

Правда о детекторах лжи состоит в том, что все хотят, чтобы они работали. Было бы намного легче, если бы полиция, столкнувшись с двумя противоречивыми версиями одного события, могла прибегнуть к помощи машины, которая определит, какая из сторон говорит правду.

Именно к этому и стремились создатели современного полиграфа, но… Научное сообщество небезосновательно критикует так называемый детектор лжи, эффективность которого ставят под сомнение во всем мире.

Неслужебное изобретение

В 1921 году Джон Ларсон работал полицейским на полставки в Беркли, штат Калифорния. Начинающий криминолог с докторской степенью в физиологии Ларсон хотел, чтобы полицейские расследования стали более научными и меньше зависели от интуитивных догадок и информации, полученной в ходе допросов «третьей степени».

Опираясь на работу Уильяма Моултона Марстона, Ларсон полагал, что акт обмана сопровождается физиологическими проявлениями. Ложь, думал он, заставляет людей нервничать, и это можно определить по изменению дыхания и артериального давления. Измерение этих показателей в режиме реального времени могло бы служить надежным способом выявления лжи.

Совершенствуя разработанные ранее технологии, Ларсон создал устройство, которое одновременно фиксировало изменения дыхания, кровяного давления и пульса. Прибор был позже доработан его младшим коллегой Леонардом Килером, который сделал его быстрее, надежнее, портативнее и добавил тест на потоотделение.

Несколько месяцев спустя местная газета убедила Ларсона публично проверить свое изобретение на человеке, подозреваемом в убийстве священника. Аппарат Ларсона, который он назвал кардио-пневмо психограммой, подтвердил вину подозреваемого, после чего пресса окрестила прибор детектором лжи.

Несмотря на всеобщее одобрение, Ларсон начал скептически относиться к способности своей машины обнаруживать обман — особенно это касалось методов Килера, которые он считал «психологической третьей степенью». Его беспокоил тот факт, что полиграф так и не стал чем-то большим, чем просто прославленный детектор стресса. Ларсон полагал, что американское общество чрезмерно поверило в его устройство. К концу своей жизни он называл его «монстром Франкенштейна, на борьбу с которым я потратил более 40 лет».

Однако Килер, который запатентовал машину, был настроен куда оптимистичнее и мечтал увидеть, как прибор начнет широко применяться для борьбы с преступностью. В 1935 году результаты теста на детекторе лжи Килера были впервые признаны доказательством в суде с участием присяжных заседателей и стали основанием для обвинительного приговора.

Как это работает

В своем нынешнем виде тест на детекторе лжи фиксирует изменения дыхания, потоотделения и частоты сердечных сокращений. Датчики крепятся к пальцам, руке и груди человека и передают показатели в режиме реального времени при допросе. Резкое колебание этих параметров свидетельствует о том, что допрашиваемый нервничает, и потенциально указывает на ложь.

С целью снизить вероятность ложноположительного результата тест берет за основу реакцию при ответе на контрольные вопросы.

При расследовании убийства подозреваемому задают соответствующие вопросы, например: «Вы знали жертву?» или «Вы видели ее в ночь убийства?». Но ему также будут заданы пространные контрольные вопросы об общих проступках, которые должны вызвать беспокойство: «Вы когда-нибудь брали что-то, что вам не принадлежит?» или «Вы когда-нибудь лгали другу?».

Контрольные вопросы не должны быть конкретными, их цель — заставить невиновного волноваться (кто из нас никогда не лгал другу?). Между тем виновный будет больше переживать при ответах на вопросы, которые касаются преступления.

В этой разнице и заключается вся суть теста на полиграфе. Специалисты Американской психологической ассоциации говорят, что более выраженная реакция на конкретные вопросы по теме по сравнению с общими контрольными вопросами ведет к диагнозу ложь. «Большинство психологов согласны с мнением, что существует мало доказательств того, что тест на полиграфе может достоверно определить обман», — заявляют в ассоциации.

Тест на полиграфе. Фото: Gabriel Rodríguez / Flickr

Однако диагноз обман не обязательно означает, что человек солгал. Тест на детекторе лжи фактически не обнаруживает обман, а лишь показывает уровень стресса. Вот почему Ларсон был против того, чтобы его изобретение называли детектором лжи.

У тестировщиков есть множество способов сделать вывод об обмане (например, используя контрольные вопросы), тем не менее, согласно Американской психологической ассоциации, процесс этот «структурирован, но не стандартизирован» и не должен называться определением лжи.

Таким образом, достоверность результатов остается предметом дискуссий. В зависимости от конкретного человека надежность теста варьируется от «почти наверняка» до «подбросить монетку». Американская ассоциация полиграфологов утверждает, что точность теста составляет почти 90%. Но многие психологи — и даже некоторые полицейские — признают, что полиграф ориентирован на поиск лжецов и шанс получить ложноположительный результат и обвинить невиновного составляет 50%.

Не совсем как отпечатки пальцев

Большинство стран традиционно скептически относятся к тесту на детекторе лжи, и лишь немногие включили его в свою правовую систему. Наибольшей популярностью он пользуется в Соединенных Штатах, где многие полицейские управления используют его для получения признаний от подозреваемых. (В 1978 году бывший директор ЦРУ Ричард Хелмс объяснял это тем, что «американцы не очень хорошо умеют лгать».)

За прошедшие годы Верховный суд США издал множество постановлений касательно применения полиграфа в качестве доказательства в уголовном процессе. До изобретения Ларсона суды с подозрением относились к тестам на обнаружение лжи. В деле 1922 года судья запретил представлять в суде результаты проверки на подобном аппарате не только из-за сомнительной достоверности, но и из опасений, что это может оказать необоснованное влияние на мнение присяжных.

Затем после того, как проверка на полиграфе стала основанием для вынесения приговора в 1935 году (по предварительному соглашению защиты и обвинения), Килер — протеже Ларсона — заявил, что «результаты теста на детекторе лжи могут использоваться в суде так же, как отпечатки пальцев».

Однако многочисленные судебные постановления показали, что это не так. Хотя технология допроса на детекторе лжи продолжала совершенствоваться, а сам процесс стал еще более систематизированным и стандартизированным, ученые и юристы по-прежнему не могли прийти к единому мнению об эффективности устройства.

Верховный суд в своем постановлении от 1998 года сделал вывод о том, что риск ложноположительных результатов допроса слишком высок. По мнению суда, тест на полиграфе имеет «ауру непогрешимости», несмотря на то, что «нет единого мнения о надежности полиграфических доказательств». Прохождение теста, постановил суд, не может рассматриваться как доказательство невиновности. Соответственно, прохождение теста должно оставаться добровольным, а его результаты никогда не должны быть представлены как окончательные.

И самое главное: суд оставил на усмотрение штатов решать, могут ли результаты теста вообще быть представлены в суде. На сегодняшний день 23 штата допускают тестирование на полиграфе в качестве доказательства в судебном процессе, и во многих из этих штатов необходимо согласие обеих сторон.

Критики детектора лжи утверждают, что даже в штатах, где тест не может быть признан доказательством вины, правоохранители зачастую используют его для запугивания подозреваемых с целью получить признательные показания, которые впоследствии могут быть приняты.

«Это пугает людей и заставляет признаться, хотя сам по себе тест не может выявить ложь», — говорит Джефф Банн, профессор психологии в Городском университете Манчестера.

Но несмотря на критику — и на появление целой индустрии обучения, как пройти тест, — полиграф по-прежнему используется достаточно широко, главным образом при приеме на работу и проверках безопасности.

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